John Hopkins University, USA

John Hopkins University, USA

Johns Hopkins College[a] (typically abbreviated as Johns HopkinsHopkins, or JHU) is a private research university in Baltimore, Maryland. Based in 1876, Johns Hopkins was the primary American college primarily based on the European research institution mannequin.[6] The college additionally has graduate campuses in Italy, China, and Washington, D.C.[7]

The college was named for its first benefactor, the American entrepreneur and Quaker philanthropist Johns Hopkins.[8] Hopkins’s $7 million bequest to ascertain the college was the biggest philanthropic reward in U.S. historical past as much as that point.[9][10] Daniel Coit Gilman, who was inaugurated as Johns Hopkins’s first president on February 22, 1876,[11] led the college to revolutionize larger schooling within the U.S. by integrating instructing and analysis.[12] In 1900, Johns Hopkins turned a founding member of the American Association of Universities.[13] The college has led all U.S. universities in annual analysis and improvement expenditures for over 4 consecutive a long time ($3.18 billion as of fiscal yr 2021).[14][15]

Whereas its major campus is in Baltimore, Johns Hopkins additionally maintains ten divisions on campuses in different Maryland areas, together with LaurelRockvilleColumbiaAberdeenCaliforniaElkridge, and Owings Mills.[16] The 2 undergraduate divisions, the Zanvyl Krieger School of Arts and Sciences and the Whiting School of Engineering are positioned on the Homewood campus in Baltimore’s Charles Village neighborhood.[17] The medical schoolnursing schoolBloomberg School of Public Health, and Johns Hopkins Children’s Center are positioned on the Medical Establishments campus in East Baltimore.[18] The college additionally consists of the Peabody InstituteApplied Physics LaboratoryPaul H. Nitze School of Advanced International StudiesSchool of EducationCarey Business School, and various other facilities.[19]

Based in 1883, the Blue Jays men’s lacrosse staff has captured 44 nationwide titles[20] and performs within the Big Ten Conference as an affiliate member.[21] The college’s different sports activities groups compete in Division III of the NCAA as members of the Centennial Conference.

Historical past[edit]

Philanthropic beginnings and basis[edit]

Additional info: Humboldtian model of higher education and Johns Hopkins

Johns Hopkins, the college’s namesake whose philanthropic reward in 1873 established the college, Johns Hopkins Hospital, and the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine
The college mannequin of Heidelberg University in Heidelberg, Germany supplied was replicated within the founding of Johns Hopkins College.

On his dying in 1873, Johns Hopkins, a Quaker entrepreneur and childless bachelor, bequeathed $7 million (roughly $175.7 million in the present day adjusted for shopper value inflation) to fund a hospital and college in Baltimore.[22]

On the time, this donation, generated primarily from the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad,[23] was the biggest philanthropic reward within the historical past of the USA,[9] and endowment was then the biggest in America.[10] Till 2020, Hopkins was assumed to be a fervent abolitionist, till analysis achieved by the varsity into his United States Census information revealed he claimed to personal no less than 5 family slaves within the 1840 and 1850 decennial censuses.[24][25]

The primary title of philanthropist Johns Hopkins comes from the surname of his great-grandmother, Margaret Johns, who married Gerard Hopkins.[23] They named their son Johns Hopkins, who named his personal son Samuel Hopkins. Samuel named one among his sons for his father, and that son turned the college’s benefactor. Milton Eisenhower, a former college president, as soon as spoke at a conference in Pittsburgh the place the master of ceremonies launched him as “President of John Hopkins.” Eisenhower retorted that he was “glad to be right here in Pittburgh.”[26]

The unique board opted for a completely novel college mannequin devoted to the invention of data at a sophisticated stage, extending that of up to date Germany.[27] Constructing on the Humboldtian model of higher education, the German schooling mannequin of Wilhelm von Humboldt, it turned devoted to analysis. It was particularly Heidelberg University and its lengthy tutorial analysis historical past on which the brand new establishment tried to mannequin itself.[27][failed verification] Johns Hopkins thereby turned the mannequin of the fashionable analysis college in the USA. Its success finally shifted larger schooling in the USA from a deal with instructing revealed and/or utilized data to the scientific discovery of latest data.[28]

Wikisource has the textual content of a 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article about the Early History.

nineteenth century[edit]

Additional info: Daniel Coit GilmanJohns Hopkins HospitalJohns Hopkins School of Medicine, and Johns Hopkins University Press

Daniel Coit Gilman, the primary president of Johns Hopkins College
Hopkins Corridor on the unique Downtown Baltimore campus, c. 1885
Johns Hopkins Hospital, c. Eighties–Eighteen Nineties

The trustees labored alongside 4 notable college presidents, Charles W. Eliot of Harvard UniversityAndrew D. White of Cornell UniversityNoah Porter of Yale College, and James B. Angell of University of Michigan. They every supported Daniel Coit Gilman to guide the brand new college and he turned the college’s first president.[29] Gilman, a Yale-educated scholar, had been serving as president of the University of California, Berkeley previous to this appointment.[29] In preparation for the college’s founding, Gilman visited University of Freiburg and different German universities.

Gilman launched what many on the time thought of an audacious and unprecedented tutorial experiment to merge instructing and analysis. He dismissed the concept the 2 had been mutually unique: “The very best lecturers are often those that are free, competent and prepared to make authentic researches within the library and the laboratory,” he acknowledged.[30] To implement his plan, Gilman recruited internationally identified researchers together with the mathematician James Joseph Sylvester; the biologist H. Newell Martin; the physicist Henry A. Rowland, the primary president of the American Physical Society, the classical scholars Basil Gildersleeve, and Charles D. Morris;[31] the economist Richard T. Ely; and the chemist Ira Remsen, who turned the second president of the college in 1901.[32]

Gilman centered on the enlargement of graduate schooling and assist of school analysis. The brand new college fused superior scholarship with such skilled colleges as medication and engineering. Hopkins turned the nationwide trendsetter in doctoral applications and the host for quite a few scholarly journals and associations.[33] The Johns Hopkins University Press, based in 1878, is the oldest American university press in steady operation.[34]

With the completion of Johns Hopkins Hospital in 1889 and the medical school in 1893, the college’s research-focused mode of instruction quickly started attracting world-renowned school members who would change into main figures within the rising discipline of educational medication, together with William OslerWilliam HalstedHoward Kelly, and William Welch.[35] College students got here from everywhere in the world to check at Johns Hopkins and returned to their sending nation to serve their nation, together with Dr Harry Chung (b. 1872) who served as a diplomat within the Manchu Dynasty and First Secretary to the USA. Throughout this era Hopkins made extra historical past by turning into the primary medical faculty to confess girls on an equal foundation with males and to require a Bachelor’s degree, primarily based on the efforts of Mary E. Garrett, who had endowed the varsity at Gilman’s request.[36] The school of medicine was America’s first coeducational, graduate-level medical faculty, and have become a prototype for tutorial medication that emphasised bedside studying, analysis tasks, and laboratory coaching.

In his will and in his directions to the trustees of the college and the hospital, Hopkins requested that each establishments be constructed upon the huge grounds of his Baltimore property, Clifton. When Gilman assumed the presidency, he determined that it could be greatest to make use of the college’s endowment for recruiting school and college students, deciding to, because it has been paraphrased, “construct males, not buildings.”[37] In his will Hopkins stipulated that none of his endowment must be used for development; solely curiosity on the principal could possibly be used for this objective. Sadly, shares in The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, which might have generated many of the curiosity, turned just about nugatory quickly after Hopkins’s dying. The college’s first residence was thus in Downtown Baltimore, delaying plans to website the college in Clifton.[22]

twentieth century[edit]

Additional info: Applied Physics LaboratoryPaul H. Nitze School of Advanced International StudiesPeabody Institute, and Whiting School of Engineering

Within the early twentieth century, the college outgrew its buildings and the trustees started to seek for a brand new residence. Growing Clifton for the college was too expensive, and 30 acres (12 ha) of the property needed to be offered to the town as public park. An answer was achieved by a staff of distinguished locals who acquired the property in north Baltimore referred to as the Homewood Campus of Johns Hopkins University. On February 22, 1902, this land was formally transferred to the college. The flagship constructing, Gilman Corridor, was accomplished in 1915. The School of Engineering relocated in Fall of 1914 and the Zanvyl Krieger School of Arts and Sciences adopted in 1916. These a long time noticed the ceding of lands by the college for the general public Wyman Park and Wyman Park Dell and the Baltimore Museum of Art, coalescing within the modern space of 140 acres (57 ha).[22]

Previous to turning into the principle Johns Hopkins campus, the Homewood property had initially been the reward of Charles Carroll of Carrollton, Maryland, a planter and signer of the Declaration of Independence, to his son Charles Carroll Jr. The unique construction, the 1801 Homewood House, nonetheless stands and serves as an on-campus museum.[38] The brick and marble Federal model of Homewood Home turned the architectural inspiration for a lot of the college campus versus the Collegiate Gothic model of different historic American universities.[38]

In 1909, the college was among the many first to begin grownup continuing education applications and in 1916 it based the nation’s first school of public health.[39]

Because the 1910s, Johns Hopkins College has famously been a “fertile cradle” to Arthur Lovejoy‘s history of ideas.[40]

TitleTime period
Daniel Coit GilmanCould 1875 – August 1901
Ira RemsenSeptember 1901 – January 1913
Frank GoodnowOctober 1914 – June 1929
Joseph Sweetman AmesJuly 1929 – June 1935
Isaiah BowmanJuly 1935 – December 1948
Detlev BronkJanuary 1949 – August 1953
Lowell ReedSeptember 1953 – June 1956
Milton S. EisenhowerJuly 1956 – June 1967
Lincoln GordonJuly 1967 – March 1971
Milton S. EisenhowerMarch 1971 – January 1972
Steven MullerFebruary 1972 – June 1990
William C. RichardsonJuly 1990 – July 1995
Daniel NathansJune 1995 – August 1996
William R. BrodyAugust 1996 – February 2009
Ronald J. DanielsMarch 2009–Current

Since 1942, the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) has served as a significant governmental protection contractor. In tandem with on-campus analysis, Johns Hopkins has yearly since 1979 had the very best federal analysis funding of any American college.[41]

Skilled colleges of worldwide affairs and music had been established in 1950 and 1977, respectively, when the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies[42] in Washington, D.C., and the Peabody Institute[43] in Baltimore had been included into the college.

twenty first century[edit]

Additional info: Carey Business School and Johns Hopkins School of Education

The early a long time of the twenty first century noticed enlargement throughout the college’s establishments in each bodily and inhabitants sizes. Notably, a deliberate 88-acre enlargement to the medical campus started in 2013.[44] Accomplished development on the Homewood campus has included a brand new biomedical engineering constructing within the Johns Hopkins University Department of Biomedical Engineering, a brand new library, a brand new biology wing, an intensive renovation of the flagship Gilman Corridor, and the reconstruction of the principle college entrance.[45]

These years additionally introduced in regards to the fast improvement of the college’s skilled colleges of schooling and enterprise. From 1999 till 2007, these disciplines had been joined inside the Faculty of Skilled Research in Enterprise and Schooling (SPSBE), itself a reshuffling of a number of earlier ventures. The 2007 cut up, mixed with new funding and management initiatives, has led to the simultaneous emergence of the Johns Hopkins School of Education and the Carey Business School.[46]

Legg Mason Tower, residence of the brand new Carey Business School

On November 18, 2018, it was introduced that Michael Bloomberg would make a donation to his alma mater of $1.8 billion, marking the biggest non-public donation in trendy historical past to an establishment of higher education and bringing Bloomberg’s complete contribution to the varsity in extra of $3.3 billion.[47][48][49][50][51][52] Bloomberg’s $1.8 billion reward permits the varsity to apply need-blind admission and meet the complete monetary want of admitted college students.[53][54]

In January 2019, the college introduced[55] an settlement to buy the Newseum, positioned at 555 Pennsylvania Ave. NW, within the coronary heart of Washington, D.C., with plans to find all of its Washington, D.C.-based graduate applications there. In an interview with The Atlantic, the president of Johns Hopkins acknowledged that, “the acquisition is a chance to place the college, actually, to higher contribute its experience to national- and international-policy discussions.”[56]

In late 2019, the college’s Coronavirus Analysis Middle started monitoring worldwide instances of the COVID-19 pandemic by compiling information from tons of of sources around the globe.[57] This led to the college turning into probably the most cited sources for information in regards to the pandemic.[57]

Civil rights[edit]


Hopkins was a distinguished abolitionist who supported Abraham Lincoln in the course of the American Civil War. After his dying, reviews mentioned his conviction was a decisive think about enrolling Hopkins’s first African-American pupil, Kelly Miller, a graduate pupil in physics, astronomy and arithmetic.[58] As time handed, the college adopted a “separate however equal” stance extra like different Baltimore establishments.[10]

The primary black undergraduate entered the varsity in 1945 and graduate college students adopted in 1967.[59] James Nabwangu, a British-trained Kenyan, was the primary black graduate of the medical faculty.[60] African-American teacher and laboratory supervisor Vivien Thomas was instrumental in growing and conducting the primary profitable blue baby operation in 1944.[61] Regardless of such instances, racial variety didn’t change into commonplace at Johns Hopkins establishments till the Sixties and Seventies.


Hopkins’s most well-known battle for girls’s rights was the one led by daughters of trustees of the college; Mary E. GarrettM. Carey Thomas, Mamie Gwinn, Elizabeth King, and Julia Rogers.[62] They donated and raised the funds wanted to open the medical faculty, and required Hopkins’s officers to comply with their stipulation that ladies could be admitted. The nursing school opened in 1889 and accepted men and women as college students.[63] Different graduate colleges had been later opened to girls by president Ira Remsen in 1907. Christine Ladd-Franklin was the primary girl to earn a PhD at Hopkins, in arithmetic in 1882.[64] The trustees denied her the diploma for many years and refused to alter the coverage about admitting girls. In 1893, Florence Bascomb turned the college’s first feminine PhD.[62] The choice to confess girls at undergraduate stage was not thought of till the late Sixties and was finally adopted in October 1969. As of 2009–2010, the undergraduate inhabitants was 47% feminine and 53% male.[65] In 2020, the undergraduate inhabitants of Hopkins was 53% feminine.[66][67]

Freedom of speech[edit]

On September 5, 2013, cryptographer and Johns Hopkins college professor Matthew Green posted a weblog entitled, “On the NSA”, wherein he contributed to the continuing debate relating to the position of NIST and NSA in formulating U.S. cryptography requirements. On September 9, 2013, Inexperienced obtained a take-down request for the “On the NSA” weblog from interim Dean Andrew Douglas from the Johns Hopkins College Whiting School of Engineering.[68] The request cited considerations that the weblog had hyperlinks to delicate materials. The weblog linked to already printed information articles from The GuardianThe New York Times, and Douglas subsequently issued a private on-line apology to Inexperienced.[69] The occasion raised concern over the way forward for tutorial freedom of speech inside the cryptologic analysis neighborhood.


Fundamental campuses & divisions
HomewoodEast Baltimore
(Medical Establishments Campus)
Downtown BaltimoreWashington D.C.Laurel, Maryland
School of Arts and Sciences
School of Education
School of Engineering
School of Nursing
School of Medicine
School of Public Health
Peabody Institute
School of Business
School of Advanced International Studies
Applied Physics Laboratory


Fundamental article: Homewood Campus of Johns Hopkins University

View of Gilman Corridor from the Levering Plaza on the Homewood Campus
  • School of Education: Initially established in 1909 as The Faculty of Skilled Research in Enterprise and Schooling, the divisions of Schooling and Enterprise turned separate colleges in 2007.
  • Whiting School of Engineering: The Whiting Faculty incorporates 14 undergraduate and graduate engineering applications and 12 further areas of research.[70]
  • Zanvyl Krieger School of Arts and Sciences: The Krieger Faculty provides greater than 60 undergraduate majors and minors and greater than 40 graduate applications.[71]

The primary campus was positioned on Howard Road. Ultimately, they relocated to Homewood, in northern Baltimore, the property of Charles Carroll, son of the oldest surviving signer of the Declaration of Independence. Carroll’s Homewood House is taken into account one of many most interesting examples of Federal residential structure. The property then got here to the Wyman household, which participated in making it the park-like foremost campus of the colleges of arts and sciences and engineering at the beginning of the twentieth century. Most of its structure was modeled after the Federal style of Homewood House. Homewood Home is preserved as a museum. Most undergraduate applications are on this campus.[72]

East Baltimore[edit]

Johns Hopkins Hospital

Collectively referred to as Johns Hopkins Medical Establishments (JHMI) campus, the East Baltimore facility occupies a number of metropolis blocks spreading from the Johns Hopkins Hospital trademark dome.

Downtown Baltimore[edit]

Peabody Institute
  • Carey Business School: The Carey Enterprise Faculty was established in 2007, incorporating divisions of the previous Faculty of Skilled Research in Enterprise and Schooling. It was initially positioned on Charles Street, however relocated to the Legg Mason constructing in Harbor East in 2011.
  • Peabody Institute: based in 1857, is the oldest repeatedly energetic music conservatory in the USA; it turned a division of Johns Hopkins in 1977. The Conservatory retains its personal pupil physique and grants levels in musicology and efficiency, although each Hopkins and Peabody college students might take programs at each establishments. It’s positioned on East Mount Vernon Place.

Washington, D.C.[edit]

Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies, referred to as SAIS, on Massachusetts Avenue in Washington, D.C.

In 2019, Hopkins introduced its buy of the Newseum constructing on Pennsylvania Avenue, three blocks from the United States Capitol, to deal with its Washington, D.C. applications and facilities.[77]

Laurel, Maryland[edit]

The Applied Physics Laboratory (APL), in Laurel, Maryland, focuses on analysis for the U.S. Department of DefenseNASA, and different authorities and civilian analysis companies. Amongst different tasks, it has designed, constructed, and flown spacecraft for NASA to the asteroid Eros, and the planets Mercury and Pluto. It has developed greater than 100 biomedical gadgets, many in collaboration with the Johns Hopkins Medical Establishments.[78] Akin to the Washington, D.C. campus for the Faculty of Arts and Sciences, APL is also the first campus for grasp’s levels in quite a lot of STEM fields.

Different campuses[edit]

See additionally: List of Johns Hopkins University Research Centers and Institutes




The Johns Hopkins entity is structured as two companies, the college and The Johns Hopkins Well being System, shaped in 1986. The President is JHU’s chief govt officer, and the college is organized into 9 tutorial divisions.[84]

JHU’s bylaws specify a Board of Trustees of between 18 and 65 voting members. Trustees serve six-year phrases topic to a two-term restrict. The alumni choose 12 trustees. 4 latest alumni serve 4-year phrases, one per yr, sometimes from the graduating class. The bylaws prohibit college students, school or administrative employees from serving on the Board, besides the President as an ex-officio trustee.[85] The Johns Hopkins Well being System has a separate Board of Trustees, a lot of whom are medical doctors or well being care executives.[86]


The complete-time, four-year undergraduate program is “most selective” with low transfer-in and a excessive graduate co-existence.[87] The Princeton Evaluation charges the selectivity of Johns Hopkins as 99/99. The price of attendance per yr is roughly $77,400.[88] Nonetheless, 51% of full-time undergraduates obtain monetary support masking 100% of their want.[89] The admit fee of Hopkins undergraduates to medical faculty is 80% and to legislation faculty is 97%, among the highest charges within the US.[90] The college is one among fourteen founding members of the Association of American Universities (AAU); it’s also a member of the Consortium on Financing Higher Education (COFHE) and the Universities Research Association (URA).


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