University of California, Berkeley, USA

California University

The College of California, Berkeley (UC BerkeleyBerkeleyCal, or California)[10][11] is a public land-grant research university in Berkeley, California. Based in 1868 and named after Anglo-Irish thinker George Berkeley, it’s the state’s first land-grant university and the founding campus of the University of California system. Berkeley can also be a founding member of the Association of American Universities. It has been thought to be one of many prime universities on the planet.[12]

Berkeley is classified amongst “R1: Doctoral Universities—Very excessive analysis exercise” and has three nationwide laboratories for the U.S. Department of Energy (Lawrence Berkeley National LaboratoryLawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and Los Alamos National Laboratory).[13][14] Between 2001 and 2010, it was the No. 1 recipient of National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowships with 1,333 awards.[15] In 2021, the funding for analysis and growth exceeded $1 billion.[16] Thirty-two libraries compose the Berkeley library system, which is the sixth largest research library by number of volumes within the United States.[17][18][19] Berkeley’s athletic groups, the California Golden Bears, compete within the Pac-12 Conference and have received 107 nationwide championships and 223 Olympic medals (121 gold).[20][21]

Berkeley’s alumnifaculty, and researchers embrace 260 American Academy of Arts and Sciences Fellows,[22] 190 recipients of the MacArthur Fellowship,[23] 144 members of the National Academy of Sciences,[24] 139 Guggenheim Fellows, 125 Sloan Fellows, 75 members of the National Academy of Engineering,[25] 68 recipients of the National Medal of Science, 34 Pulitzer Prize winners, 30 Wolf Prize winners, 25 Turing Award winners, 19 Academy Award winners, and 14 Fields Medalists.[26]

Historical past

View from Memorial Glade of Sather Tower (the Campanile), the middle of Berkeley
Sather Tower (the Campanile) searching over San Francisco Bay and Mount Tamalpais

Major article: History of the University of California, Berkeley

Founding

Made attainable by President Lincoln‘s signing of the Morrill Act in 1862, the College of California was based in 1868 because the state’s first land-grant college, inheriting the land and services of the non-public College of California and the federal-funding eligibility of a public agricultural, mining, and mechanical arts faculty.[27] The Natural Act states that the “College shall have for its design, to offer instruction and thorough and full schooling in all departments of science, literature and artwork, industrial {and professional} pursuits, and basic schooling, and likewise particular programs of instruction in preparation for the professions.”[28][29]

Ten school members and forty male college students made up the fledgling college when it opened in Oakland in 1869.[30] Frederick Billings, a trustee of the Faculty of California, instructed {that a} new campus website north of Oakland be named in honor of Anglo-Irish thinker George Berkeley.[31] The college started admitting ladies the next 12 months.[32] In 1870, Henry Durant, founding father of the Faculty of California, grew to become its first president. With the completion of North and South Halls in 1873, the college relocated to its Berkeley location with 167 male and 22 feminine college students.[33][34] The primary feminine pupil to graduate was in 1874, admitted within the firstclass to incorporate ladies in 1870.[35]

Starting in 1891, Phoebe Apperson Hearst funded a number of applications and new buildings and, in 1898, sponsored a world competitors in Antwerp, the place French architect Émile Bénard submitted the profitable design for a campus grasp plan.

twentieth century

In 1905, the College Farm was established close to Sacramento, in the end changing into the University of California, Davis.[36] In 1919, Los Angeles State Regular College grew to become the southern department of the college, which in the end grew to become the University of California, Los Angeles.[37] By the Twenties, the variety of campus buildings in Berkeley had grown considerably and included twenty constructions designed by architect John Galen Howard.[38] In 1917, one of many nation’s first ROTC applications was established at Berkeley[39] and its College of Army Aeronautics started coaching pilots, together with Jimmy Doolittle. In 1926, future Fleet Admiral Chester W. Nimitz established the primary Naval ROTC unit at Berkeley.[40] Berkeley ROTC alumni embrace former Secretary of Protection Robert McNamara, Military Chief of Employees Frederick C. Weyand, sixteen different general officers, ten Navy flag officers, and AFROTC alumna Captain Theresa Claiborne.[41]

Within the Thirties, Ernest Orlando Lawrence helped set up the Radiation Laboratory (now Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory) and invented the cyclotron, which received him the Nobel physics prize in 1939.[42] Utilizing the cyclotron, Berkeley professors and Berkeley Lab researchers went on to find sixteen chemical elements—greater than another college on the planet.[43][44] Particularly, throughout World Warfare II and following Glenn Seaborg‘s then-secret discovery of plutonium, Lawrence’s Radiation Laboratory started to contract with the U.S. Military to develop the atomic bomb. Physics professor J. Robert Oppenheimer was named scientific head of the Manhattan Undertaking in 1942.[45][46] Together with the Lawrence Berkeley Nationwide Laboratory, Berkeley based and was then a accomplice in managing two different labs, Los Alamos National Laboratory (1943) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (1952).

In 1952, the University of California reorganized itself right into a system of semi-autonomous campuses, with every campus given a chancellor, and Clark Kerr grew to become Berkeley’s first Chancellor, whereas Robert Sproul remained in place because the President of the College of California.[47] Berkeley gained a worldwide fame for political activism within the Sixties. In 1964, the Free Speech Movement organized pupil resistance to the college’s restrictions on political actions on campus—most conspicuously, pupil actions associated to the Civil Rights Movement.[48][49]

The arrest in Sproul Plaza of Jack Weinberg, a latest Berkeley alumnus and chair of Campus CORE, prompted a sequence of student-led acts of formal remonstrance and civil disobedience that in the end gave rise to the Free Speech Motion, which motion would prevail and function a precedent for pupil opposition to America’s involvement within the Vietnam Warfare.[50][51][52] In 1982, the Mathematical Sciences Research Institute (MSRI) was established on campus with help from the National Science Foundation and on the request of three Berkeley mathematicians—Shiing-Shen ChernCalvin Moore, and Isadore M. Singer. The institute is now broadly thought to be a number one middle for collaborative mathematical analysis, drawing hundreds of visiting researchers from all over the world annually.[53][54][55]

twenty first century

Within the present century, Berkeley has turn out to be much less politically energetic, though extra liberal.[56][57] Democrats outnumber Republicans on the school by a ratio of 9 to 1, which is a ratio just like that of American academia usually.[58] The college has turn out to be extra targeted on STEM disciplines and fundraising.[59][60][61] In 2007, the Energy Biosciences Institute was established with funding from BP and Stanley Corridor, a analysis facility and headquarters for the California Institute for Quantitative Biosciences, opened. Supported by a grant from alumnus James Simons, the Simons Institute for the Theory of Computing was established in 2012. In 2015, Berkeley and its sister campus, UCSF, established the Innovative Genomics Institute to develop CRISPR gene editing, and, in 2020, an nameless donor pledged $252 million to assist fund a brand new middle for computing and knowledge science. For the 2020 fiscal 12 months, Berkeley set a fundraising report, receiving over $1 billion in presents and pledges, and two years later, it broke that report, elevating over $1.2 billion.[62][59][63][64]

In April 2024, Berkeley college students joined other campuses across the United States in protests in opposition to the Israel–Hamas conflict and the genocide in Gaza. College students arrange encampments and a Muslim regulation pupil, Malak Afaneh, was ejected for protesting at a regulation college dinner held at a dean’s house.[65][66][67] The coed protestors demanded an finish to the conflict in Gaza and the college’s divestment from firms with ties to Israel.[68]

Controversies

  • Numerous analysis ethics, human rights, and animal rights advocates have been in battle with Berkeley. Native Americans contended with the college over repatriation of stays from the Phoebe A. Hearst Museum of Anthropology.[69] Pupil activists have urged the college to chop monetary ties with Tyson Foods and PepsiCo.[70][71][72] School member Ignacio Chapela prominently criticized the college’s monetary ties to Novartis.[73] PETA has challenged the college’s use of animals for analysis and argued that it could violate the Animal Welfare Act.[74][75]
  • Cal’s Memorial Stadium reopened in September 2012 after renovations. The college incurred a controversial $445 million of debt for the stadium and a brand new $153 million pupil athletic middle, which it financed with the sale of particular stadium endowment seats.[76] The roughly $18 million interest-only annual funds on the debt consumes 20 p.c of Cal’s athletics’ price range; principal compensation begins in 2032 and is scheduled to conclude in 2113.[77]
  • On Might 1, 2014, Berkeley was named certainly one of fifty-five larger schooling establishments underneath investigation by the U.S. Department of Education‘s Office of Civil Rights “for attainable violations of federal regulation over the dealing with of sexual violence and harassment complaints” by the White House Task Force to Protect Students from Sexual Assault.[78] Investigations continued into 2016, with a whole lot of pages of information launched in April 2016, displaying a sample of documented sexual harassment and firings of non-tenured employees.[79]
  • On July 25, 2019, Berkeley was faraway from the U.S. News Best Colleges Ranking for misreporting statistics. Berkeley had initially reported that its two-year common alumni giving fee for fiscal years 2017 and 2016 was 11.6 p.c, U.S. News mentioned. The college later informed U.S. Information the proper common alumni giving fee for the 2016 fiscal 12 months was simply 7.9 p.c. The college incorrectly overstated its alumni giving knowledge to U.S. Information since not less than 2014. The alumni giving fee accounts for 5 p.c of the Greatest Schools rating.[80]
  • Berkeley neighborhood members have criticized UC Berkeley’s growing enrollment. Berkeley residents filed a lawsuit alleging that the college’s increasing enrollment violated California Environmental Quality Act and that the realm lacked the infrastructure to help extra college students.[81] Critics of the lawsuit accused these neighborhood members of NIMBYism.[82][83][84] In August 2021, a decide from the Superior Court of Alameda County dominated in favor of the residents, and on March 3, 2022, the California Supreme Court additionally dominated in favor of the residents, saying that the college wanted to freeze its admission charges at 2020–2021 ranges.[85] On March 11, 2022, state legislators launched a proposal to vary CEQA to exempt the college from its restrictions.[86] On March 14, Gavin Newsom signed the invoice into regulation.[87] Berkeley has continued to face a housing scarcity.[88]

Group and administration

Title

Formally named the “College of California, Berkeley” it’s typically shortened to “Berkeley” basically reference or in a tutorial context (Berkeley LawBerkeley EngineeringBerkeley HaasBerkeley Public Health) and to “California” or “Cal” significantly when referring to its athletic groups (California Golden Bears).[10][11][89] In August 2022, a college activity power was fashioned which beneficial renaming the athletic id to “Cal Berkeley” to additional tie the athletic model to tutorial status, and cut back public confusion.[90]

Governance

The College of California is ruled by a twenty-six member Board of Regents, eighteen of whom are appointed by the Governor of California to 12-year phrases. The board additionally has seven ex officio members, a pupil regent, and a non-voting pupil regent-designate.[91] Previous to 1952, Berkeley was the College of California, so the college president was additionally Berkeley’s chief government. In 1952, the college reorganized itself right into a system of semi-autonomous campuses, with every campus having its personal chief government, a chancellor, who would, in flip, report back to the president of the college system. Twelve vice-chancellors report on to Berkeley’s chancellor, and the deans of the fifteen faculties and faculties report back to the manager vice chancellor and provost, Berkeley’s chief tutorial officer.[92] Twenty-three presidents and chancellors have led Berkeley since its founding.[93][47]

Presidents1868–1869 Henry Durant1869–1870 John LeConte1870–1872 Henry Durant1872–1875 Daniel Coit Gilman1875–1881 John LeConte1881–1885 W.T. Reid1885–1888 Edward S. Holden1888–1890 Horace Davis1890–1899 Martin Kellogg1899–1919 Benjamin Ide Wheeler1919–1923 David Prescott Barrows1923–1930 William Wallace Campbell1930–1952 Robert Gordon SproulChancellors1952–1958 Clark Kerr1958–1961 Glenn T. Seaborg1961–1965 Edward W. Strong1965–1965 Martin E. Meyerson (appearing)1965–1971 Roger Heyns1971–1980 Albert H. Bowker1980–1990 Ira Michael Heyman1990–1997 Chang-Lin Tien1997–2004 Robert M. Berdahl2004–2013 Robert J. Birgeneau2013–2017 Nicholas B. Dirks2017–current: Carol T. Christ

Funding

See additionally: University of California finances

Apart from authorities contracts, public help is apportioned to Berkeley and the opposite campuses of the College of California system via the UC Workplace of the President and accounts for 12 p.c of Berkeley’s whole revenues.[94] Berkeley has lengthy benefited from non-public philanthropy and extra just lately, alumni and their foundations have given to the college for operations and capital expenditures.[95] Berkeley has benefited from benefactors past its alumni ranks, notable amongst that are Mark Zuckerberg and Priscilla ChanVitalik ButerinPatrick CollisonJohn Collison, the Ron Conway household, Crankstart, Elad Gil and Jennifer Huang Gil, Daniel GrossDustin Moskovitz and Cari Tuna, and Hemant and Jessica Taneja, together with Jane Street principals Matt Berger, Craig Falls, Rob Granieri, James McClave, and Adam Winkel; BP; the Invoice and Melinda Gates Basis, billionaire Sir Li Ka-Shing, Israeli-Russian billionaire Yuri MilnerThomas and Stacey SiebelSanford and Joan Weill, and professor Gordon Rausser ($50 million reward in 2020).[95] A whole bunch of tens of millions of {dollars} have been given anonymously.[96] The 2008–13 “Marketing campaign for Berkeley” raised $3.13 billion from 281,855 donors, and the “Gentle the Manner” marketing campaign, which concluded on the finish of 2023, has raised over $6.2 billion.[97]

Lecturers

School and departments

Wheeler Hall, house to Berkeley’s largest lecture corridor, was the situation of a Nobel Prize conferral throughout WWII.
The inside of the Hearst Mining Building, devoted by Phoebe Hearst in honor of her late husband, George.

Berkeley is a big, primarily residential analysis college with a majority of its enrolment in undergraduate applications but additionally providing a complete doctoral program.[13] The college has been accredited by the Western Association of Schools and Colleges Senior Faculty and College Fee since 1949.[98] The college operates on a semester calendar and awarded 8,725 bachelor’s, 3,286 grasp’s or skilled and 1,272 doctoral levels in 2018–2019.[99]

There are 1,789 full-time and 886 part-time school members among the many college’s tutorial enterprise which is organized into fifteen faculties and faculties that comprise 180 departments and 80 interdisciplinary models providing over 350 diploma applications. Schools serve each undergraduate and graduate college students, whereas faculties are usually graduate solely, although some supply undergraduate majors or minors:

Undergraduate applications

Doe Memorial Library

The four-year, full-time undergraduate program provides 107 bachelor’s levels throughout the Haas College of Enterprise (1), Faculty of Chemistry (5), Faculty of Engineering (20), Faculty of Environmental Design (4), Faculty of Letters and Science (67), Rausser Faculty of Pure Assets (10), and particular person majors (2).[100] The preferred majors are electrical engineering and computer sciencespolitical sciencemolecular and cell biologyenvironmental science, and economics.[101]

Necessities for undergraduate levels embrace an entry-level writing requirement earlier than enrollment (usually fulfilled by minimal scores on standardized admissions exams such because the SAT or ACT), finishing coursework on “American Historical past and Establishments” earlier than or after enrollment by taking an introductory class, passing an “American Cultures Breadth” class at Berkeley, in addition to necessities for studying and composition and particular necessities declared by the division and faculty.[102]

Graduate {and professional} applications

Haas School of Business

Berkeley has a “complete” graduate program, with excessive coexistence with the applications supplied to undergraduates, and provides interdisciplinary graduate applications with the medical faculties on the University of California, San Francisco and Stanford University. The college provides Master of ArtsMaster of ScienceMaster of Fine Arts, and PhD levels along with skilled levels such because the Juris DoctorMaster of Business AdministrationMaster of Public Health, and Master of Design.[13][103] The college awarded 963 doctoral levels and three,531 grasp’s levels in 2017.[15] Admission to graduate applications is decentralized; candidates apply on to the division or diploma program. Most graduate college students are supported by fellowships, instructing assistantships, or analysis assistantships.[15]

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